Translatioin of Political Literature

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Plan

Introduction

Chapter I

§ I. Translation and its aims.

§ II. Translation of Political literature and terms.

Chapter II

§ I. Grammatical difficulties of translation

§ II. Lexical difficulties of translation

§ III. Stylistic difficulties of translation

§ IV. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

§ V. List of set expressions used in Political Literature

Conclusion

Summary

Introduction

In this Qualification Paper we’ve set forth to study the translation methods of Political literature and political terms at a deeper level, their types and ways of their translation of Political literature, to consider the function of political literature in everyday life of the humanity.

The object of this Qualification paper can be considered as one that gives the detailed review of the ways political literature and political terms can be translated into Russian language. It also helps to improve one’s understanding of the principal rules of translation which plays leading role while processing translation.

The aim of this work is to introduce the translation approach to Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for those willing to keep up their educational and scientific carrier in the science of translation, it was purposed to broaden their view on translation studies and peculiar features while translating Political literature.

In this work we set the following tasks:

— to review all the sources of Political literature

— to reveal the methods of translation of Political literature

— to investigate grammatical, lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties of translation of political literature

We should mention that this research work represents a great theoretical value for those willing to take up their future carrier in the field of translations as invaluable reference to the methods and the ways of translation of Political literature.

And the practical value of this work involves the idea that translation represents a field aimed at training future translators/interpreters to translate verbal and written materials on Political subjects basing on the study of International politics, to differentiate the language features of English, Russian and other languages as well as political lexicology, phraseology, syntax and style.

The source information for this research work has been carefully studied and investigated before it was applied to the given work.

The originality of this work is in its creative approach to the study and methods of translation, besides, it contains a detailed review of ways and methods of translation.

The given Qualification paper contains introduction, two chapters, conclusion and bibliography list.

The first chapter gives a detailed review of the study of the theory of translation and also reveals the role of political literature and terms in everyday life of the humanity which are believed to be interesting to future translator/interpreters. It also discussed the methods of translation of political literature with purpose to make it easier for translator to achieve adequate translation in the target language.

The second chapter deals with the detailed study of grammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties involved in translation of political literature. It also gives some hints on translation of idioms and set expressions and their behavior in literature.

We have also attached some samples of translation of political set expressions so that to enable the future translator to benefit from the given paper in their further researches in the fields of translation.

In conclusion we have summed up the results of our laborious investigation translation of political literature.

At the end of the research paper we have attached the bibliography list to enable the future translator to use information sources used in this Paper.

Chapter I.

§ I. Translation and its aims.

Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and would like to see others to treat them like professionals rather than as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators need to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as well as others that they are in control of what they do; that they do not just translate well because they have 'flair' for translation, but rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to understand various aspects of their work.

Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as a subject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing number of universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines in order to develop and formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.

Translation is a process of rendering a text, written piece or a speech by means of other languages. The difference of translation from retelling or other kinds of transfer of a given text is that that translation is a process of creating an original unity in contexts and forms of original.

The translation quality is defined by its completeness and value. «The completeness and value of translation means definite rendering of the contextual sense of the original piece and a high-grade functional- stylistic conformity. «

The concept «high-grade functional-stylistic conformity» clearly points on two existing ways of rendering the form in unity with the meaning: the first one is a reproduction of specific features of the form of the original piece and the second one is the creation of functional conformities of those features. It means when translating the specific features of an original literature we should rather consider the style inherent for the given genre but than direct copying the form of an original. While translating, we should also remember that different lexical and grammatical elements of an original might be translated differently if accepted by the norms of conformity to the whole original. The translation adequacy of separate phrases, sentences and paragraphs should not be considered separately but along with achievement of the adequacy and completeness of the translating piece as a whole because the unity of a piece is created through collecting the components.

No matter how a translator (interpreter) is talented he should remember two most important conditions of the process of translation: the first is that the aim of translation is to get the reader as closely as possible acquainted with the context of a given text and then second — to translate — means to precisely and completely express by means of one language the things that had been expressed earlier by the means of another language.

A translation can be done:

1. from one language into another, kin-language, non-kin,

2. from literary language into its dialect or visa versa

3. from the language of an ancient period into its modern state

The process of translation, no matter how fast it is, is subdivided into two moments. To translate one should first of all to understand, to perceive the meaning and the sense of the material.

Furthermore, to translate one should find and select the sufficient means of expression in the language the material is translated into (words, phrases, grammatical forms).

There are three, most identified types of translation: literary, special and sociopolitical.

The ways of achieving the adequacy and completeness in those three types of translation will never completely coincide with each other because of their diverse character and tasks set to translator (interpreter).

The object of literary translation is the literature itself. And its distinctive feature is a figurative-emotional impact on the reader, which is attained through a great usage of different linguistic means, beginning from epithet and metaphor up to rhythmical-syntactic construction of phrases.

Thus, in order to preserve figurative-emotional impact on the reader while translating a work of art, the translator (interpreter) will try to render all the specific features of the translating material. That’s why, on the first place one should reconstruct the specific features of an original and the creation of functional conformities to the features of the original play the subordinate role.

The objects of special translations are materials that belong to different fields of human activities, science and technology. The distinctive feature of this type of translation is an exact expression of the sense of translating material, which is attained through wide usage of special terms.

Thus, in order to render an exact and clear meaning while translating such materials alongside with the selection of term equivalents, on the first place one has to create functional conformities to the features of an original, and the creation of specific features of the original play the subordinate role.

And finally, the objects of social-politic translations are the materials of propaganda and agitation character, and therefore a bright emotional sense abundant with special terms.

Concerning the achievement of adequacy this type of translation possesses the features of literary and special types of translation as well.

§ II. Translation of Political literature and terms.

Political literature like any other scientific kind of literature have languages items characteristic to them, that requires the translator to be precise and sharp. Most books on general politics are characterized by the passion of expression, polemic style and the specific feature is in blending the elements of scientific speech from one side with different emotionally colored means of expression from another side.

The translation of political literature can be considered in two ways: as a field of linguistic activity and as a separate field in science.

As a field of linguistic activity translation of political literature represents one of the types of special translations possessing as objects of its activity different materials of political character.

The political translation comes out into a special field of study due to its specific features of written and verbal speech on political topics, which is specified by its essential character and the knowledge of this science. Sometimes these features are so diverse that in order to understand them (Russian and English politics as well) one should have a special knowledge without which it would be very hard to clearly perceive the inner sense on politics or a translated piece.

Therefore, the study of specific features of written and verbal speech acquires great importance to translators (interpreters). To the features mention above belong the following:

1. maximal filling the political literature with special political terms, and in verbal speech (among the politicians) — filling it with words of political jargon — slang.

2. presence of special idiomatic expressions and phraseological units in verbal and written speech that are rarely used in colloquial speech and general literature.

As an example, I should bring the following idioms: blitzkrieg — блискавична війна, Comprehensive Program of Disarmament — Всеосяжна програма роззброєння, principal powers — великі держави, статус-кво — статус-кво and many others. We have to mark — if the quantity of political idioms is limited, then the amount of «politically» related phraseological idioms is vast in English and Russian languages.

3. the presence of some stylistic deflection from general literary norms is sometimes very great.

a) wide usage of elliptic constructions, especially in periodically publishing materials, propaganda and other kinds of politically important printing media.

b) preciseness and beauty of self-expression which is achieved by the usage of elliptic constructions along with wide usage of passive constructions and an often substitution of придаткових пропозицій by absolute constructions and дієприкметниковими оборотами.

з) the presence of official writing style, mostly in documents of official provisions that cover administrative and political questions.

d) strictly regulated use of verbal forms and word phrases in special chapters of political literature and political documents.

As was told before, while translating a political character, like doing any other special translation a great importance is given to translation of special terms.

In our philological literature exist lots of definitions to the concept of term, but the essence of majority comes to the following:

Term — is a word or a combination of words, which define a notion (subject, a phenomenon, property, relation or a process) that is characteristic for the given field of science, technology, art or a sphere of social life.

Terms differ from the words of general usage by definite semantic limitations and specific meanings they define. Its very hard to overestimate the general and scientific meaning of terms since the concrete knowledge demands definite expression and a term does not only fix the concept by its notion (name) but specifies it diverging it from adjacent components.

For better functioning, terms must express systematization of notions, express their essence or at least be semantically neutral and at the same time be unambiguous and precise.

The phenomenon of a separate field of science and the terms that fix them should be systemized that offers gender availability around which group notions are formed. Thus an English term representative which presents a group notion and forms a group of notions that belong to this group: representative forum (представницький форум), business world representative (представник ділового світу), representative to the talks (представник переговорів), representative to the public (представник громадськості), representative of political circles (представник політичних кіл), representative to NATO (представник НАТО), representative of various strata or the population (представник різних шарів населения).

The capability of a term to express a systematic state of notions and easily merge with new phrases that represent new group notions that consequently appear along with the development of a definite field of science or knowledge maybe called its systematic capability.

The systematic capability of notions helps us to clarify the relation of notions, raise their semantic definiteness and ease their understanding and remembering.

In terms, formed on the base of mother tongue we may differ direct meaning and terminological meaning.

The direct meaning of a term is formed through the elements of the language used for their formation; the terminological meaning defines the concept of notion expressed by the term.

The terms, direct and terminological meaning of which correspond to each other, correctly orientate and underline the so-called their interrelation. These terms are able to express the essence of notions.

The terms, whose direct and terminological meaning does not correspond to each other belong to semantically neutral group of terms.

And at last, the terms whose direct and terminological meaning contradict each other, should be admitted as completely unsatisfactory because they distort the genuine relations among the notions, disorientate the hearer and do not possess any semantic definiteness.

Unambiguousness of a term also influences its clear semantic features but since we do not have any researches in this field this concept cannot always be applied. Therefore, up to 10% of English and American political terms do not possess even a relative semantic definiteness, i.e. definiteness in some political concerns. This situation may be explained by the fact that the terms according to their nature are firstly simple words, and consequently, they develop according to general laws of linguistics. The result of this is the appearance terminological homonyms that hinder the normal functioning of political terms in a language.

The definiteness of a term requires preciseness of an expressed idea. It also raises the semantic definiteness of the term averting its misusage according to it form.

Not all the terms, of course, possess the above-mentioned qualities, but the translator/interpreter of political material should take them into consideration while forming new terms and solving the question of preference to one of the available term-synonyms.

The correct translation of political literature is a laborious work despite the terms' considerable possession of definite semantic clearness and independence in usage.

While speaking of difficulties of translation, we imply as a matter of the first importance, the translation general political literature, which either do not yet have any equivalents in the translating language or have several similar notion for the term in question or at least have one equivalent but of doubtful adequacy. There are lots of word phrases and idiom and terms of this kind and their number is growing with development of technology and interrelation of people and especially with the development of Political sciences.

To achieve a correct translation we can recommend to group the political literature and the used in them according to their field of application and some principles of translation of each group. All the political terms and idioms existing in politics can be divided into three groups:

1. terms — defining the notions of a foreign reality but identical to the reality of the Russian language march — марш

2. terms — defining the notions of a foreign reality absent in the

Russian one but possessing generally accepted term-equivalents

National Guard — Національна Гвардія, Territorial Army —

Територіальна Армия.

3. terms — defining the notions of a foreign reality that are not available in the Russian language and not having generally accepted term-equivalents: alert hanger — ангар вильоту по тревоге.

The adequacy of translation of the first group is achieved by the use of terms implementing corresponding notions in Russian language.

At the same time, it is very important for the notion expressed by the notion of another language to correspond in meaning rendered in Russian language only by its main, essential attributes. The translation of an English term poll into Russian опитування населення (голосування) is possible only for the correspondence of their principal meaning though the organization and methods of polling are quite different in both countries.

An adequate translation of the second group is comprised in the selection of generally accepted Russian terminological equivalents.

Even terms, not fully meeting the above mentioned requirements due to the terminological meaning fixed for it through the linguistic activity will adequately fit into these rules.

An adequate translation of the words of the third group may be achieved by means of creation of a new terms, which will have to completely merge into the existing system of political terms underlying the systematization of available notions, reflect the essence of the notion it expresses or at least not to contradict it and possess an unambiguousness within its field of application.

Thus, we have considered all the general principals in achieving and adequate translation including translation of political literature and the essential features of translation of political terms.

Chapter II

§ I. Grammatical difficulties of translation

The translation process of political literature from one language into another is inevitable without necessary grammatical transformations (change of structure). It gets great importance while making translation to add or omit some words since the structures of languages are quite different. Grammatical transformations are characterized by various principles — grammatical, and lexical as well, though the principal role is given to grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes are mixed so that they have lexical-grammatical character.

The vigil of the British Embassy, supported last week by many prominent people and still continuing, the marches last Saturday, the resolutions or organizations have done something to show that Blair doesn’t speak for Britain.

Цілодобова демонстрація в будинку британського консульства, отримавши минулого тижня підтримку багатьох видатних діячів, усе ще триває. Ця демонстрація і що відбулися суботу похід, і навіть що їх різними організаціями резолюції, явно свідчить про тому, що Блер зовсім на каже від імені всього англійського народа.

While translating this article we have made the following changes.

The sentence was divided into two parts. We often do that when translating short newspaper articles (news in brief) and the first lines of the articles of informative character (leads). Practically, we are forced to do that because the first lines usually contain main information given in the paragraph. These sentences containing various information are not characteristic to the style of Russian writing. The division of the sentence made us repeat the word демонстрация.

The word vigil — пильнування acquired here quite another political meaning цілодобова демонстрація. Since нічне неспання is one of the semantic components of the word vigil the term цілодобова демонстрація fully renders the sense of the given word. Besides, we have to mention that one of the words was translated like word expression отримавши поддержку.

We have also added additional words like в будинку (посольства), що відбулися (у суботу походи), і навіть прийняті різними (організаціями резолюції). The word last in the last Saturday was omitted because it would make the translation more difficult, but we can conceive it by the contextual meaning of the sentence.

The strengthening function of the phrase have done something to show was rendered by the adverb явно свидетельствуют.

And the English cliche to speak for was translated by the Russian one говорити від імені. And at last I should say that I metonymically translated the word Britain into весь англійські народ.

Thus, while translating this sentence we have made use of grammatical transformations and lexical as well.

As you know, English has an analytical character and therefore the relation between words is mostly expressed by word-order, that’s by syntactic means, and morphological means play the secondary role. The priority of the role of syntactical changes appears in many cases but they do not always have similar conformities in Russian language which makes the translator make use of various transformations while translating a piece of political literature. Here we can point to well-known features of the location of syntactic items in the English, e.i. the combination of logically incompatible homogeneous part of the sentence, the essential use of introductory sentences, the break of logical chain of the sentence, and especially while expressing the noun and the attribute of the sentences.

The syntactic structure of a language imposes restrictions on the way messages may be organized in that language. The order in which functional elements such as subject, predicator, and object may occur is more fixed in some languages than in others. Languages vary in the extent to which they rely on word order to signal the relationship between elements in the clause. Compared to languages such as German, Russian, Finnish, Arabic, and Eskimo, word order in English is relatively fixed. The meaning of a sentence in English, and in languages with similarly fixed word order such as Chinese, often depends entirely on the order in which the elements are placed. (cf. The man ate the fish and The fish ate the man).

The structural features of English language require structural completeness of the sentence. One can not omit a word without supplying another one instead. This criterion is governed by stylistic preference of the language to prevent word and make the sentence more emphatic. Even if the repetition is frequent in English its use in most cases is logically required and stylistically proved to be necessary. Otherwise, repetition is accepted as unnecessary component of the sentence or one of the stylistic shortcomings of the translation. The demand of syntactical completeness of the sentences and others stylistic criteria explain here the wide usage of structure filling words (слова заступники). The structure filling words include pronouns (one, ones, this, that, these, those) and verbs (to do, to be, to have, shall, should, will, would, can, could, might, may, must, ought, need, dare).

Its quite evident that the structure filling words do not have denotative meaning, they are absolutely contextual. They should be related to conforming nouns and the verb form the fill and only afterwards they acquire lexical completeness. The verb-filling words are usually divided into two parts: fully filling and partially filling ones. To the first group belong the verb to do in the Present Indefinite which act in the role of fully filling word. It can replace the verbs of function. To the second group belong all other structure filling words. They act like a part of the whole just like the representative of compound verb form.

While translating the structure filling words we have to use words with complete meaning (sometimes pronouns) or make use of some other kinds of functional filling.

The new British Government will face many problems, both acute and chronic: an acute one will be Northern Ireland, acute among chronic ones will be inflation and rising prices.

Нове британський уряд зіштовхнеться із багатьма проблемами як невідкладного, і затяжного характеру. До невідкладним проблемам належить становище у Північної Ірландії, а до проблем, що мав затяжного характеру, — інфляція, і зростання цен.

While translating this piece we had to decipher the structure filling words and render their meaning by means of conforming nouns.

When comparing the grammatical categories and forms of English and Russian languages we identify the following differences: a) the absence of the categories in one of the comparing languages, b) partial correspondence and з) complete correspondence. The necessity of grammatical transformations arise only on two first cases. When comparing the English with Russian we should mention that Russian does not have the notions like article and gerund and absolute nominative constructions as well. Partial conformity and unconformity in meaning and usage of corresponding forms and constructions also demands grammatical transformations. We can refer to this case the partial unconformity of the category of number, partial unconformity in the forms of passive constructions, partial unconformity of the form of infinitive and gerund and some other differences in expressing the modality of the clause and so on.

First of all we should consider the article for article both definite and indefinite which despite its abstract meaning very frequently demands semantic expression in translation. As we know both these articles originated from pronouns; the definite one originated from index pronoun and the indefinite one from indefinite pronoun, which refers to number one. These primary meanings are sometimes obvious in their modern usage. In this cases their lexical meaning should be rendered in translation otherwise the Russian sentence would be incomplete and ambiguous for denotative meaning of articles is an inseparable part of the whole context meaning of a given sentence. There are cases when classifying function of indefinite articles is so obvious that one should render its meaning by some lexical item.

It is commonly stated that government should resign if defeated in a major issue in the House of Commons which has been made one of confidence. (The Times).

Зазвичай стверджують, що уряд повинен подати у відставку, коли вона зазнає поразки в Палаті громад по якомусь серйозного питання, який опозиція вважає питанням довіру правительству.

In this case the indefinite article acquires the meaning of the pronoun some. One can easily see its historical relation with the number one in the following example:

Yet, H.G. Wells had not an enemy on earth.

Проте в Герберта було ні єдиного ворога на свете.

As has been pointed before the most difficult are cases when classifying meanings of indefinite articles demand semantic transfer in translation.

We need a Government which believes in planning ahead for jobs and which will use available labor to build homes for the British people.

Ми повинні таке уряд, який би переконана в доцільності планування зайнятості і використали б готівкову робочу силу у будівництві будинків для населения.

The emphatic role of the indefinite article in its classifying function is more expressed in the following sentence.

The Vietnam war had revealed the true nature of a U.S. foreign policy that can be purchased ruthlessly for the benefit of a view in the «military- industrial complex».

Війна у В'єтнамі розкрила справжню природу тією зовнішньою політики США, що здійснюється нещадними методами заради вигоди небагатьох представників «військово-промислового комплекса».

Pretty often the definite article demands translation in cases when it comes before numerals.

The two sides also signed a Treaty in the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Tests.

Обидві сторони підписали договір про обмеження підземних випробувань атомного оружия.

The Southern nations remained quiet between 1948 and 1958 as Latin America’s economy grew at an impressive annual rate of 4.3 percent.

З 1948-го по 1958 південні країни перебували відносному спокої, у те час як економіка Латинська Америка розвивалася вразливим темпом в 4.3 відсотки надходжень у год.

In the following sentence both articles demands translation.

The influence and authority of the UN Secretariat depends to an extent (though not nearly to the extent that is popularly supposed) on the talents of one individual — the Secretary-General. The job is a peculiar one.

Вплив і авторитет секретаріату ООН залежать певною мірою (хоча вперше і не такої міри, звісно ж вважають) від якостей одну людину — Генерального секретаря. Це надзвичайно своєрідна должность.

The lexical meaning of the article is strongly expressed when it acts in like a link connecting parts of the sentences or two separate sentences as given in the example above. From the mentioned above cases we can judge that missing article translation may lead to misinterpretation or incorrect and incomplete translation of a sentence.

The role of verb complexes in English is quite evident therefore we will consider only some peculiar cases of verb transformations during translation.

First of all let us consider the verb construction with the preposition for:

…American military bases on foreign territories which are intended for launching missiles possessed by United States' armed forces.

… американські військові бази територій інших держав, які призначені для запуску ракет американськими ВВС.

In this case the infinitive construction is translated like adverbial modifier of purpose.

The construction with secondary predicate (so-called Nominative with the Infinitive) is widely used in newspaper style due to its preciseness and because it help to avoid the responsibility for the given information.

The United States Congress is aimed to control all the financial expenses of the Government.

Метою конгресу Сполучених Штатів є контроль усіх витрат правительства.

It is natural that transformation is required while translating sentences with participles of absolute nominative construction.

But often enough grammatical transformations are necessary while rendering conforming forms and constructions for some divergence in their meaning and usage. Such differences of opinions are observed in cases of usage of the category of number. This refers to both countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns have single and plural forms in both languages that usually coincide still we observe cases when their usage is different, ex. :

War Atrocity on Peace Conference Eve (news head).

Звірства (інтервентів) напередодні мирної конференции

Concerning uncountable nouns, especially those expressing abstract notions we may have much more difficulties because most of them are paradigmatic. For example: ink — чорнило, money — гроші and so on.

Increasingly, Southern Africa is becoming the arena of national liberation struggles.

країни Південної Африки дедалі більше і більшає районом національно- визвольної борьбы.

Sometimes, despite the availability of the plural form in Russian — its usage is impossible owing to difference in combination and usage.

The Nile Valley appears to have been unfit for human habitation during the Stone Ages.

Долина Ніла, очевидно, була придатна життю особи на одне протязі всього кам’яного віку (в усі періоди кам’яного века).

In Russian the Stone Age expression is of a historical nature and is never used in plural.

In cases when plural form is to be preserved for it carries some inherent sense one has to apply countable nouns, ex. :

Strikes broke out in many British industries.

У багатьох галузей промисловості Англії спалахнули забастовки.

Sometimes, owing to some reasons some of constructions has wider usage in one languages comparing with other languages. The best example of this is the passive form — widely used in English mostly due to disappearance of word flexion. As a result, both indirect and predicative object maybe transformed into the objects of passive construction.

Stones and bottles were showered upon a Negro demonstration in Milwaukee by white racists.

Білі расисти обрушили град рифів і пляшок на негритянською демонстрацію в Мілуокі (закидали камінням і бутылками).

We should notice that the passive-active transformation can not give sufficient result for in passive construction the stress is being made on the object of action and in the active construction the stress is being made on the agent of action. The widespread use of passive construction in English happens often enough because it is explained by unimportance of the doer of that action and it is most often in newspaper style at the same time the most important is to attract attention to the passage. Since the structure and word order of simple sentence is subject + predicate + object the importance of stylistics is bigger then to distinguish the object one chooses the passive construction.

Divergence are found in some other cases of infinitive usage — infinitive in substantivized constructions (like post-positive attribute) and infinitive expressing following actions, for example:

The president warned of drastic steps to be taken against racialists in the Zambian copper belt.

Президент попередив, що будуть вжиті рішучі заходи проти білих расистів в Мідному поясі Замбии.

The infinitive functioning as attribute is translated into object clause with the verb in the Future tense.

The Continuative Infinitive is often mistaken for the infinitive of purpose, but in this function it expresses the action following the after the action expressed by predicate and represents the logical development of things.

The Soviet Union decided to sign the Treaty with Germany and only did to discover that Germany itself violated it two years later.

Радянський Союз перед вирішив укласти договір з Німеччиною. Але через два роки Німеччина сама порушила его.

The Continuative infinitive very often is used with the adverb only which stresses it. This emphatic function can be rendered in many ways.

Thus, all the considered cases — absence of conforming form, partial correspondence, differences in character and use — urge translators to make necessary grammatical transformations while translating some piece. Those grammatical transformations maybe divided into following types:

1) substitution

2) transposition

3) omission (ellipsis)

4) supplementation

Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items), ex:

I like politics. And I do.

In this example, do is a substitute for like politics. Items commonly used in substitution in English include do, one, and the same, as in the following examples from Halliday and Hasan:

You think US will start the war against Iraq? — No one does.

We make use of substitution while translating a piece because of several reasons: absence of similar construction in Russian language, unconformity in usage of corresponding forms and constructions and some lexical reasons, which include different word usage and different norms of combinability in English and Russian and the absence of the part of speech with corresponding meaning.

An attempted overthrow in Peru.

Спроба зробити переворот в Перу.

In Russian we do not have the conforming participle II of the verb намагатися. And this made us change the part of speech; the participle attempted was translated into Russian by the noun спроба. The expression спроба перевороту does not conform to the norms of Russian language that’s why we have to apply additional word совершить.

While translating the following text we will have to use substitution several times.

On the whole the «popular'' press — with the New York Daily News as its cheer-leader — is vociferous in its support of the President’s policies and merciless toward those who attack them. But among the so-called «quality» papers led by the New York Times there is a growing mood of doubt and questioning.

Загалом «масові» газети, на чолі з Нью-Йорк дейлі ньюс", гучно підтримують політику Президента та нещадно обрушуються за тими, хто критикує її. Але навіть серед про «якісних» газет, очолюваних «Нью-Йорк Таймс», дедалі більше ростуть сумнів доцільність і невпевненість (у її правильности).

In the first sentence are used the verbal noun, verb link and two predicative parts expressed by adjectives with object clauses. In this translation verbal nouns very replaced by predicative ones (іменні присудки було замінено глагольными): підтримують and обрушуються. Both predicative parts of the sentence have been translated by adverbs: гучно, нещадно. In the second sentence the introductory construction there is was translated by predicative verb and the participle growing was transformed into the function of an attribute. The noun mood was omitted and its attribute of doubt and questioning was turned into its object.

The transformation of 'active' into 'passive' is also when a translator uses substitution.

More light was shed yesterday on the effect of C.S. gas, which was claimed by Pentagon to be virtually harmless to health.

Вчора надійшли додаткові інформацію про шкідливому дії газу C.S., який, як стверджують Пентагону, нібито безпечний для здоровья.

The phraseological unit more light was shed was translated by means of lexical transformation and the passive construction was replaced by an active one. The passive construction in the object clause also undergone lexical transformation — verbal construction was substituted by substantive one: по утверждению.

This example can illustrate the fact that lexical and grammatical transformations are closely related with each other.

Transposition, that’s, change of structure of the sentence may be caused by several reasons. But the main of them, as it has been mentioned before is the difference in the structure of the English and Russian languages. The fixed order of words in English bears hierarchic character, first come the primary parts of the sentence; noun, predicate followed by secondary parts. In Russian the word order is not fixed but one can observe the tendency to locate the main information at the end of sentences expressing it be the noun. The academic grammar of Russian points that the word order in Russian sentences follows the model: adverbial modifier, predicate and then the noun — that’s the order absolutely opposite to English. In Russian, the secondary part of the sentence can stand at the beginning if it represents the starting point of expression and introduces theme of given information, ex:

Вчора там відбулася пресс-конференция.

The essence of the information is прес-конференція — which is expressed by the noun located at the end of the sentence. Nevertheless, this word-order is not obligatory, ex:

Прем'єр-міністр виступив вчора по телевидению.

Here we find the main essence at the beginning of sentence.

In English, according to fixed word order, the noun of the sentence stands at the beginning of clause. One of the prominent English linguists, Halliday marks that, usually (but not always) a starting point is intrinsic to English sentences.

Still in many cases the English sentence happens to be the center of informative message, compare A Press Conference was held in Washington yesterday. Usually it happens when the noun of the sentence is expressed with an indefinite article. Something, semantically new has got to be expressed in the sentence, and the earlier one should be opposed to the new one, which is being expressed. Therefore the indefinite article functions represents this new information, introduces it.

A smash-and-grab raid on two of the most important nationalized industries is being organized by the Tory Party.

Консерватори збираються обрушитися на дві найзначніші націоналізовані галузі промышленности.

(the metaphor smash-and-grab has not been preserved in translated version)

Nevertheless, similar word order in English and Russian sentences are also evident.

A meeting of firemen’s and employers' representatives scheduled for today has been postponed.

Намічена сьогодні зустріч представників пожежників і підприємців була отложена.

A Catholic priest in South Africa told of the malnutrition, disease and starvation there.

Один падре із Південної Африки розповідав про існуючому там недоїданні, хворобах і голоде.

Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

A big wave of actions by all sections of workers — skilled and unskilled, men and women, manual and non-manual — for higher wages and equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in shaping the environment at work is rising.

Зараз наростає величезна хвиля страйків трудящих всіх категорій — кваліфікованих і кваліфікованих, чоловіків і жінок, працівників фізичного і розумової праці - за підвищення зарплати, за рівну оплату жіночого праці, до скорочення робочого дня, за поліпшення умов труда.

It is very frequent when grammatical and lexical transformations demand supplementation or omission of some words or elements. Therefore omission and supplementation are frequently combined with other types of grammatical transformations and more frequently with substitution of parts of speech. Supplementation of parts of speech are characterized by several factors: difference in structures of the sentences and that short English sentences demand spread translation in the Russian language. Absence of some corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant in both languages is also one of the reasons of applying additional words in translation.

The American troops were thought to be heading toward Saigon, but no one seemed to be aware of fierce resistance of the nation.

Вважали, які отримують американські війська іде на Сайгон, але здавалося, що хто б знав про жорстокому опір місцевого населения.

The construction Nominative + Infinitive with two omitted elements (which was) was given in object clause plus introductory sentences… який, вважали раніше, рухається… Thus, the difference in the structure of sentences demanded supplementation in the given translation.

In the following example, supplementation was caused by absence of corresponding word in Russian to English conservationists.

The actions of Congress and of North Carolina and Tennessee statesmen, aided by gifts of wise conservationists, have set this land aside as Great Smoky National Park.

Ця місцевість березі річки Смоки-Хилл була перетворено на Національний парк завдяки зусиллям Конгресу та державотворців штатів Північна Кароліна і Теннеси, і навіть завдяки пожертвуванням любителів природи, розуміють усю важливість її сохранения.

While translating this sentence besides transposition we have made many other transformations and as a matter of the first importance we should mentions the supplementation we have accomplished. In regard to the absence on corresponding word in the Russian language to the English conservationists we have rendered it by two words любителів природи; and taking into consideration the combinability of the attribute wise we have translated it by adverbial modifier applying introductory words like розуміють усю важливість її збереження, the noun збереження renders all the essence of the given sentence which is contained in conservationists. To make the perception of the sentence easier we have we added the words штатів, березі річки. The last supplementation was made on the basis of its spread context. The passive participle aided was rendered by preposition завдяки. We should also point to lexico-grammatical transformation: have set this land aside — ця місцевість …була превращена.

Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. It doesn’t include every instance when the hearer or reader has to supply missing information, but only those cases where grammatical structure itself points to an item or items that can fill the slot in question. Here are some examples of ellipsis:

The United States donated two millions dollars and Britain one and a half millions pounds. (omitted item: donated in second clause).

Here are four strategies. Choose any of them. (omitted item strategy)

Use of synonymy pairs is characterized to all styles of written speech of English language. Preserving such synonymy pair is accepted as pleonasm and it is absolutely superfluous even when translating official documents that demand preciseness. For example:

The Treaty was declared null and void.

Договору було оголошено недействительным.

Condemned by almost all members of the United States, and regarded as an outcast and criminal system by the vast majority of mankind, it (apartheid) is able to exist and defy censure solely because of the aid and support given to it by the Western imperialist countries.

Апартеїд засуджений майже усіма членами ООН, і переважна більшість людства вважає неї злочинної. Апартеїд існує завдяки допомогу й підтримці імперіалістичних держав Запада.

In this example are used two synonymy pairs: outcast and criminal, aid and support. In the first case злочинний sufficiently renders the essence of both synonyms. The lexical meaning of the attribute outcast — вигнаний, відринутий doesn’t fit to this context neither owing to norms of combinability nor to the power of its meaning. The second pair of synonyms can be preserved without any difficulty — допомогу дітям і підтримка. The participle given is omitted for its meaning is supplied by case flexion.

The battle was fierce while it lasted.

Бій був жесток.

Time complex object in this in this case functions as a clichй and doesn’t have corresponding equivalent in Russian.

So we can see that in the majority cases of translation some piece of political literature we have make necessary changes. We should remind you that it is not always an English sentence completely corresponds to the Russian one. Very frequently the structure of a Russian sentence absolutely differs from the one English. It has different word order, parts of the sentences and pretty often differs even the order of sentences. In some instances, parts of speech expressed in English are translated into Russian by the help of different parts of speech. You should remember that the compressed way of expression in the English can not be followed in Russian and we therefore have to «decompress» them so that to make the easy to perceive and understand, e.i. we have to add some words or expressions or even sentences in whole. Nevertheless, some differences in usage of some specific features make us leave some elements unsaid while translating the whole. And all these cases are explained by grammatical transformations we have just investigated.

§ II. Lexical difficulties of transformation.

Every word in a language carries some concrete notion. The semantics of a word reflects different signs of the subject and the relation of its meanings to other objects it denotes. The semantics of a word includes word perception characteristic to the studied language, being more precise to the bearers of the studied language. When studying the reality of some object we can identify that its name reveals its functions which finds the reflection in the semantics of the word. Lets take as an example the word glasses — окуляри. In English it reveals the substance of which the object is made and in Russian firstly it reveals its function — second eyes — очи.

Despite distinguishing all kinds of differences we should say that, both languages sufficiently reflect one and the same perception of reality. Therefore the difficulty stylistic devices represents to a translator is based on word play, if in corresponding words of both languages are featured different signs.

The second reason, causing lexical difficulties to translation of political literature is the difference in the semantic volume of a word. In every language a word exists in a close connection with the lexical- semantic system of a given language. It may have various kinds of lexical meanings (lexical-semantic) variants; it may widen or narrow its meaning and make it more abstract or concrete.

The third reason presenting lexical difficulties in translation the difference in combinability. Words in languages have some definite relation characteristic only to the given language. It should be mentioned that word combinability is possible if words point to similar objects they denote. This difference of word combinability in various languages is very important; therefore some types of combinability are easily accepted in one of language and are completely unacceptable in other languages.

Last but not the least is the accepted usage of words in a language. It is, of course related to the development of a given languages and formation of its lexical system. Every language worked out its own clichйs and some set expressions used by speakers, nevertheless those word expressions are not phraseological units but they possess complete form, which, in comparison with the phraseological units, are never broken by adding some introductory words or substitution of some of its elements.

Translation studies showed that there are cases when due to the distinguished signs a word acquires wider semantic volume and can not be covered by corresponding equivalent in the target language. Let us take teenager for example: etymologically it is related to the numerals from thirteen till nineteen. The Russian підліток does not semantically cover its meaning in complete volume for its is narrower in its meaning. Therefore the word teenager is usually translated by different words — підліток, юнак, and in plural as молодёжь.

Difference in the semantic structure of a word represents one of the main reason causing lexical difficulty in translation. These difference are related to peculiar features of separate words or word groups. And it is quite natural that this matter covers a wide range of examples. Practically, even identical words in different languages are not always equal in their meaning, they never correspond completely. Most often is the correspondence of first lexical-semantic variants of such words — their primary meaning — then we have various lexical-semantic variants for the course of development of these words was of different nature.

This is characterized by different functioning of a word in language, different in usage and combinability, but even the primary meaning of an English word maybe wider of the corresponding one in Russian.

The semantic structure of a word predefines the possibility of its contextual use, and the translation of contextual meaning presents a hard task to translators.

Contextual meaning of a word in many instances depends on the character of semantic context, on the semantics of the words combining with it. Occasional meanings, suddenly originated in the context are not always arbitrary — its is based into the semantic structure of the word. In contextual usage of a word in poetry or prose — often point to the author’s penetration into the depth of the word’s semantic structure. For paradigmatic and semantic relations are characteristic to any words and the lexical potential of words can be revealed in both cases. But revealing these potentials of words is closely connected with the specificity of lexical-semantic aspects of every language and here forth we may observe the difficulty of translation of contextual meaning of words. What is possible in one language maybe impossible in another because of its difference in semantic structure and its usage.

In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages.

The word hostage according to different dictionaries has got only one meaning — заручник. But in the given instance the hostage acquired the meaning жертва. Its contextual meaning probably exists in its paradigmatic meaning; any hostage may get killed therefore while translating this example we have to use the word жертва since заручник is not used in the given contextual meaning.

Першими жертвами в атомної війні будуть жінок і дети.

A very interesting contextual meaning of exploitation will be given in the following example:

Britain’s worldwide exploitation was shaken to the roots by Colonial Liberation Movements.

The contextual meaning of the word originated metonymically — any colonial system lives on exploitation, which comprises basis of colonial power. The corresponding Russian експлуатація can not be used in this contextual meaning, the contextual surroundings of exploitation (worldwide, shaken to the roots) also prevents it. The only possible variant of translation is by means of metonymic transposition — substitution:

Колоніальна могутність Англії було підірвано (вражене повністю) національно-визвольними рухами переважають у всіх колониях.

Contextual meaning of a word is always effective semantically and stylistically owing to its unexpectedness as well. It often used in stylistic purposes and therefore a translator runs into two obstacles: he should avoid (нівелювання) and at the same time not to break the norms of translation.

The most difficulty presents the translation of emotional coloring that demands lexical changes. There is a wide range of words in a language that besides their logical meaning have emotional meanings or co-meaning. One should not mix emotional co-meaning with the multiple meaning words. Emotional meaning of words usually presents in paradigmatic meanings of words, that is it is objective and but subjective, like in the words: hate, love, friendship. But it is not an exception when emotional meaning originates from contextual usage. Emotional meaning, based in the word is usually created by association — positive or negative — which a word causes and the associations that exist in it despite the context of perception.

A peculiar group of words demanding transformation in translation are the words that possess different volume of meaning in Russian and English languages. To this group belong international words, some words of human perception, mental activity.

But we should mention that the words that belong to these groups are of different semantic structure. International words and the words of human perception, mental activity represents polysemantic words in English.

International words are words that are used in a wide range of languages in one or several forms. These words express scientific and social-politic notions. The volume meaning of these words does not usually coincide (except term-words). Though it is well-known that they comprise the false-friends of translators and the mistakes in their translation are frequent. These mistakes are caused not only by difference in their semantic structure but by the difference of their usage as well which demand lexical changes:

We are told that television this autumn will give a massive coverage to the General Election.

Повідомляють, що цієї осені передачі з питань телебачення будуть широко висвітлювати парламентські выборы.

The word massive along with the meaning масивний, has other meanings like масовий, грандіозний, величезний, широкий and so on. For example: massive success — величезний успіх, massive problems — важливі проблемы.

Since international words possess wider meaning volume they are more used in English if comparing to Russian:

Never before in the history of the world have there been so many persons engaged in the translation of both secular and religious materials.

Ще ніколи у історії всього людства стільки людей займалися перекладом як світської, і духовної литературы.

Russian words релігійні матеріали are absolutely unacceptable in this case because of their different usage. In this instance the usage plays the main role though their meaning is identical in both languages.

Lexical transformations are also caused by necessity to concretize a word while translating. It is characteristic to English language the availability of words with wide spread meaning. They can be nouns, adjectives and verbs, for example: thing, point, stiff; nice, fine, bad; to say, to go, to come, to get.

Translation of these words depends on the context, which helps to identify their concrete meaning. Usually they are translated by various Russian words that have concrete meaning (importance). Practically it refers to verbs — to verbs of speech and verbs of movement. Concrete lexical meaning (importance), this or that the lexical-semantic variant of a verb depends on structure and lexical meaning of words that distribute them.

At the by-election victory went to the Labor candidate.

На додаткових виборах перемога дісталася лейбористам (перемогу здобув кандидата лейбористської партии).

Among nouns of wide meaning a special group comprises abstract nouns, that frequently demand concrete definitions in translation. So, for example, despite the presence of a word президентство in Russian — English word presidency usually refers to the words a посаду Президента or президентська всласть.

An ageing Speaker cannot take on the burdens of the presidency.

Престарілий спікер неспроможна прийняти тягар президентської влади (разі смерті президента).

The use of words of abstract meaning strongly differs in various languages. Therefore follows the necessity of concrete definition in translating.

The Saigon regime used every form of pressure and violence to compel a reluctant electorate to go to the polls.

Сайгонский режим вдавався до всіх видів тиску і насильства, щоб змусити впертих виборців брати участь у выборах.

Sometimes it is necessary to concretize some word due to different qualitative distinction (valeur) the generalizing words have in languages. The following words belong to them: meal and трапеза that usually illustrate the this phenomenon and the words limbs and члени, from which limbs is widely common, and Russian word the члени has much narrower usage.

In the given translation, besides concrete definition of руки and ноги, we also had to use fixed word phrase.

The following problem which demands careful consideration in lexical transformations of translation is problem of word combinability. In all languages there are typical norms of word combinability. The concept of norm is relative, on the one hand, with system of language, and on the other hand, it is closely connected with speech, in which the originality of speech formation is displayed. Each language can form uncountable number new word combinations that will be understood by its bearers. In any language there exists generally accepted tradition of word combinations, which do not coincide with the corresponding tradition of word combinations in the other languages.

And it makes look for similarly accepted word combinations in the target language. The main part combined words usually coincides in translation, but the second one is frequently translated by a word possessing other logical meaning, but performing the same function, as for example, trains run — поїзда ходять, rich feeding — багата пища.

Labor Party protests followed sharply on the Tory deal with Spain.

За повідомленням угоду консервативного уряду з Іспанією негайно пішов протест лейбористської партии.

The wider is the semantic volume of a word, the wider is its combinability, thus due to this feature it can interact with various word forms and word combinations. And this features enables the translator to use his creativity in translation.

Along with traditional combinations in languages unexpected combinations are also possible, but they are quite clear, for they follow generally accepted semantic models of word combinability. This phenomenon — the connection of words with completely various semantic features — is peculiar to all languages, but in each language it has various rules and traditions. In English language such unexpected word combinations are formed very easily. It is probably caused by conversion and easiness in formation of new words in various ways, heterogeneity of languages vocabulary and some other reasons. Not only poets and writers, but also journalists frequently create unexpected word combination that makes their statements significantly vivid and original. The unexpectedness of word usage is closely connected with expressiveness of the statement.

Unexpected usage of word combinations hardens the task of translators, for words interrelate in combinations not only with one word, but also with a large number of other words of the sentence, for example:

The use of an adjective sharp in this context is unexpected: none of its meanings given in dictionaries gives the description of a hand. The difficulty of its translation is aggravated by presence of the second definition white, which excludes translation by words кощавий and сухой.

Біла, сухощавая рука мадам лежала широкому коліні Адама.

In the given translation the sense of the sentence has been rendered but the unexpectedness of the used word was lost.

The last feature of lexical transformation to be discussed in this Paper is traditional word usage for every language and which causes frequent lexical transformations. This traditional usage is to some extent related to another approach to the phenomena of reality. For example:

The military base is built on terraces rising from the lake.

For Russian the traditional use will be:

Військова база побудовано терасах, що спускаються до озеру.

In this case preposition is omitted in translation because as the originality of the English word usage required complete transformation.

To the traditional word usage can also be referred the so-called clichйs — order, and the clichйs in wider sense.

hands up!

Руки вверх!

Long live America!

Хай живе Америка!

The assault of the castle was followed by continuous bombing. Loss of life was uncountable.

За штурмом фортеці пішла тривала бомбардування. Жертви були бесчисленны.

The Commonwealth countries handle a quarter of the world «p.s trade.

На країни Британського співдружності доводиться чверть всієї світової торговли

As you can see from the examples given above — in translations corresponding Russian clichйs are also used.

§ III. Stylistic difficulties of translation

In the previous chapters we carefully considered the grammatical and lexical transformations that occur while translating political literature from English into Russian. And we have figured out that most of these reasons are rooted in national and cultural settings of both languages.

Practically, stylistic devices in almost all languages are similar still though their functions in speech vary. Identical stylistic devices are used differently in languages; they perform different functions and have different value in stylistic system of their language what actually explains their necessity when transformations in translation occur. The stylistic changes are as necessary as grammatical or lexical ones. While applying some grammatical or lexical transformation in translation the translator is guided by principle of rendering grammatical of lexical meaning. When rendering stylistic meaning of the source text a translator should be guided by the same principle — to recreate in translation the same impression that might be left by the original text.

A translator should not try to preserve the stylistic device given in the sentence, but reproduce its function in the target language.

We should not forget that almost all stylistic devices are multi functional. It is like when polysemantic words in English and Russian languages do not coincide in their lexical-semantic variants and the same is when differ the function of identical stylistic device. Thus when comparing stylistic devices we can easily identify complete correspondence, partial correspondence and even sometimes absence of correspondence and their functions.

To illustration it we can compare alliteration in the English and Russian languages. The function of alliteration coincides in both languages — in this function alliteration is one of the basic devices of poetic speech. However the usage of alliteration for pleasant sounding in prose is more characteristic for the English language, than for Russian. The second function of alliteration is logical. Alliteration emphasizes close relationship between components of the statement. Especially brightly alliteration shows the unity of an epithet with an attributed word.

The third function of alliteration in English language — to attract attention of the reader — is widely used in the names of literary works, newspaper headings and often in articles.

The use of alliteration is a convincing acknowledgement that various functions of stylistic devices in different languages do not always coincide in usage.

We have already discussed functional translation of stylistic devices. But it is extremely important to distinguish in the translated text original and imagined alliterations so that to avoid unnecessary emphasizing and to keep stylistic equivalence which presents necessary component of adequate translation. there is a constant danger to smooth and de-color the original text or, on the contrary, to make translation brighter and stylistically colored. But sometimes a translator consciously applies some ««smoothing «or neutralization in other words.

Repetition as you know is a more widespread stylistic device in the English language, than in Russian.

In some cases repetition as the stylistic device should be necessarily kept in translation, but for the difference in combinability and various semantic structures of polysemantic words or words of wide meaning in English and Russian languages the translator has to change and replace some of elements.

The repetition is widely used with stylistic purposes in newspaper publicity. In these cases the translator is compelled to apply stylistic changes, make substitution or omission.

A policy of see no stagnation, hear no stagnation, speak no stagnation has had too long a run for our money.

Занадто довго ми оплачуємо політику повної ігнорації і замовчування застою з нашого экономике.

The triple repetition of no stagnation has been omitted in translation, though is partially compensated by the use of synonymic pair at a word (stagnation), but neutralization is evident in translation. The neutralization happened when translating the phraseological unit to have (too long) a run for our money.

Among stylistic devices used in political literature rather frequent there are synonymic and alliterated pairs. The use of such pairs is traditional for all styles of the English language including business style as well. When translating official documents such pairs are frequently by one word. For example, the just and equitable treatment of all nations from UN Charter is given in Russian as справедливе у ставленні всім націям, for in Russian there is no absolute synonym for the word just.

Metaphor is used in all emotionally — colored styles of speech. However in style of fiction the metaphor always carries original character, whereas in political literature the original metaphor is used rather seldom and basically — copied metaphors. Nevertheless in advanced clauses of the English and American political literature, the purpose of which is to assure, to make people believe and to impress the reader, that is to force him to agree with the point of view given in the article, one can often see rather bright and colorful metaphors.

Sometimes the difficulty of translation of metaphor consists in translating some word combination or a phraseological unit, which does not have figurative equivalent in Russian.

We have already discussed the necessity of neutralization of means of expressiveness when translating English or American politics. Let us consider the problem of extended metaphor. The extended metaphor represents a chain of the logically connected figurative components. Sometimes such components of the extended metaphors pass through the whole clause. The below-mentioned example is taken from clause of the American observer James Reston.

The latest official explanation of the President «p.s Indochina policy is that «he is backing out of the saloon with both guns firing », but there is a catch to this.

He insists that the guys in the white hats keep control of the saloon before he leaves town. He wants a non-communist bartender, and a non- communist sheriff, and a secure non-communist town before he rides away into the sunset of November, 1972.

In the final paragraph of the article the elements of one metaphor are partially repeated: but all this is a little more complicated than «backing out of the saloon ».

The images of this extended metaphor are taken from so-called «western «- of film about cowboys in «wild «West. In this case all elements of the developed (unwrapped) metaphor, perhaps, can be kept in translation.

Відповідно до останнього офіційним поясненням політики президента відношенні Індокитаю, «хоче вибратися з бару, задкуючи до дверей і відстрілюючись із двох пістолетів». Але для цього криється щось еще.

Він хоче, щоб хлопці у білих шапках стежили за порядком в барі до того часу, що він не поїде із міста. Він хоче, щоб бармен ні комуністом, і щоб шериф ні комуністом, і щоб місто явно ні до рук комуністів. І тоді він поскакає назустріч листопадовим сумеркам 1972 года.

And at the end of clause — «але це трохи складніше, ніж задкуючи до дверей, вибратися з бара».

However there are cases, when the preservation of all figurative components of the developed (unwrapped) metaphor is impossible, as well as preservation of both components of synonymic pair, for it would break the stylistic norms of Russian.

Being purely linguistic and stylistic device — metonymy is used more and more in political literature, perhaps, even more than metaphor. Metonymy translation presents one of numerous problems for the use of metonymy significantly differs in English and Russian languages. Due to this fact the translator is often forced to go back to the primary meaning of a word, that is to the meaning that was firstly created by metonymy.

It is a widespread case of metonymy usage — substitution of concrete notion by an abstract one, which can not always be preserved.

" It (the flood) has hurl us a great deal, «the Pakistan Prime Minister told correspondents last week as he toured the destruction in the flooded provinces. («Newsweek »)

«Повінь завдало нам величезний ущерб»,-сказал кореспондентам прем'єр- міністр Пакистану, минулого тижня під час подорожі по постраждалим від повені районам.

Concerning the translation of comparison as a stylistic device, the difficulties arise only if the words of English and Russian languages are various in the semantic structure. We have already considered in the chapter of lexical transformations the question of translation of such terms and now we would like to give the example of stylistic comparison.

Instant history, like instant coffee, can sometimes be remarkably palatable. At least it is in this memoir by a former White House aide who sees L.B.J. as «an extraordinarily gifted President who was the wrong man from the wrong place at the wrong time under the wrong circumstances ».

Сучасна історія, як і такий сучасний продукт, як розчинну кави, іноді то, можливо надзвичайно приємна. По крайнього заходу, такий її підносить у мемуарах колишній помічник президента Джонсона, що вважає його «виключно обдарованим президентом, який був непідходящою людиною, з негодящого місця (штат Техас), в непідходяще час, при непридатних обстоятельствах».

In order to preserve this playing comparison, the interpreters were forced to apply additional words.

We discussed above the importance of articles in translation and now we should mention once again that they can serve in stylistic purposes.

An expressiveness gets the definite article, before a indefinite pronoun one.

… this is the one way we can achieve success in elections.

… це єдиний спосіб досягти перемоги на выборах.

The given synonyms compensate render the stress contained the original text.

There is another kind of stylistic transformation — actualization — which involves transition of something simple into something unusual, strange. It reveals potential expressiveness put in the lexical morphologic and syntactic means of a language.

Actualization of the passive form often occurs while translating political literature but it is not as colored as in the translations of fiction.

The General Assembly was gaveled to order by its outgoing President.

Минаючий з посади голова Генеральній Асамблеї навів лад у залі, енергійно стукаючи молотком.

The expressiveness and emphasis created by the passive form of the verb that had been formed as a result of conversion are compensated by lexical means. The compressed nature of sentence was lost for the verb to gavel has two semantic components one of action and an instrument that were to be rendered in translation.

Now from everything that has been discussed above we can infer that the usage of some of stylistic devices in English is peculiar — and bears specific national character, therefore their direct translation in many instances is impossible. Moreover, the impression left by some of stylistic device maybe different in both languages, compare soft panic and тиха паніка. It can be explained not only by national features of stylistic means and devices of some of the language but by the their multi functioning character also — that do not always coincide — as it was shown on the matter of alliteration. This is the main criteria causing the necessity of stylistic transformations that involve substitution and changes. Therefore we should warn the future translators and interpreters that it is not important to classify the device itself but the point is to be able to realize their ongoing effect and to identify the purpose of their application in the translation they are working on.

§ IV. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

As far as idioms and phraseological units are concerned in translation, the first difficulty that a translator comes across is being able to recognize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression. This is not always so obvious. There are various types of idioms, some more easily recognizable than others. Those which are easily recognizable include expressions which violate truth conditions, such as It «p.s raining cats and dogs, throw caution to the winds, storm in a tea cup, jump down someone «p.s throat, and food for thought. They also include expressions which seem ill- formed because they do not follow the grammatical rules of the language, for example trip the light fantastic, blow someone to kingdom come, put paid to, the powers that be, by and large, and the world and his friend. Expressions which start with like (simile-like structures) also tend to suggest that they should not be interpreted literally. These include idioms such as like a bat out of hell and like water off a duck «p.s back. Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom. Because they do not make sense if interpreted literally, the highlighted expressions in the following text are easy to recognize as idioms (assuming one is not already familiar with them):

This can only be done, I believe, by a full and frank airing of the issues. I urge you all to speak your minds and not to pull any punches.

Provided a translator has access to good reference works and monolingual dictionaries of idioms, or, better still, is able to consult native speakers of the language, opaque idioms which do not make sense for one reason or another can actually be a blessing in disguise. The very fact that s/he cannot make sense of an expression in a particular context will alert the translator to the presence of an idiom of some sort.

There are two cases in which an idiom can be easily misinterpreted if one is not already familiar with it:

(a) Some idioms are «misleading «; they seem transparent because they offer a reasonable literal interpretation and their idiomatic meanings are not necessarily signalled in the surrounding text. A large number of idioms in English, and probably all languages, have both a literal and an idiomatic meaning, for example go out with («have a romantic or sexual relationship with someone ») and take someone for a ride («deceive or cheat someone in some way »). Such idioms lend themselves easily to manipulation by speakers and writers who will sometimes play on both their literal and idiomatic meanings. In this case, a translator who is not familiar with the idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss the play on idiom.

(b) An idiom in the source language may have a very close counter

part in the target language which looks similar on the surface but has

a totally or partially different meaning. For example, the idiomatic question Has the cat had/got your tongue? is used in English to urge someone to answer a question or contribute to a conversation, particularly when their failure to do so becomes annoying.

Apart from being alert to the way speakers and writers manipulate certain features of idioms and to the possible confusion which could arise from similarities in form between source and target expressions, a translator must also consider the collocational environment which surrounds any expression whose meaning is not readily accessible. Idiomatic and fixed expressions have individual collocational patterns. They form collocations with other items in the text as single units and enter into lexical sets which are different from those of their individual words. Take, for instance, the idiom to have cold feet. Cold as a separate item may collocate with words like weather, winter, feel, or country. Feet on its own will perhaps collocate with socks, chilblain, smelly, etc. However, having cold feet, in its idiomatic use, has nothing necessarily to do with winter, feet, or chilblains and will therefore generally be used with a different set of collocates.

The ability to distinguish senses by collocation is an invaluable asset to a translator working from a foreign language. It is often subsumed under the general umbrella of «relying on the context to disambiguate meanings », which, among other things, means using our knowledge of collocational patterns to decode the meaning of a word or a stretch of language. Using our knowledge of collocational patterns may not always tell us what an idiom means but it could easily help us in many cases to recognize an idiom, particularly one which has a literal as well as a non- literal meaning.

Once an idiom or fixed expression has been recognized and interpreted correctly, the next step is to decide how to translate it into the target language. The difficulties involved in translating an idiom are totally different from those involved in interpreting it. Here, the question is not whether a given idiom is transparent, opaque, or misleading. An opaque expression may be easier to translate than a transparent one. The main difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed expressions may be summarized as follows:

(a) An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language. The way a language chooses to express, or not express, various meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way another language chooses to express the same meanings. One language may express a given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of a transparent fixed expression, a third may express it by means of an idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course.

Like single words, idioms and fixed expressions may be culture- specific. Formulae such as Merry Christmas and say when which relate to specific social or religious occasions provide good examples.

Basnett-McGuire (1980: 21) explains that the expression say when «is … directly linked to English social behavioral patterns «and suggests that «the translator putting the phrase into Russian has to contend with the problem of the non-existence of a similar convention in either culture «. Less problematic, but to some extent also culture-specific, are the sort of fixed formulae that are used in formal correspondence, such as Yours faithfully and Yours sincerely in English. These, for instance, have no equivalents in Arabic formal correspondence. The same mismatch occurs in relation to French and several other languages but in Russian we have similar expression Ваш верный!

Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items are not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an expression contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture- specific contexts which can make it untranslatable or difficult to translate. For example, the English expression to carry coals to Newcastle, though culture-specific in the sense that it contains a reference to Newcastle coal and uses it as a measure of abundance, is nevertheless closely paralleled in Russian by в Тулу зі своїми самоваром. Both expressions convey the same meaning, namely: to supply something to someone who already has plenty of it.

An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. To sing a different tune is an English idiom which means to say or do something that signals a change in opinion because it contradicts what one has said or done before. To go to the dogs («to lose one «p.s good qualities ») has a similar counterpart in German, but whereas the English idiom can be used in connection with a person or a place, its German counterpart can only be used in connection with a person and often means to die or perish.

c) An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

d) An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target- language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

Using idioms in English and American politics is very much a matter of style. Languages such as Arabic and Chinese which make a sharp distinction between written and spoken discourse and where the written mode is associated with a high level of formality tend, on the whole, to avoid using idioms in written texts. Fernando and Flavell discuss the difference in rhetorical effect of using idioms in general and of using specific types of idiom in the source and target languages and quite rightly conclude that «Translation is an exacting art. Idiom more than any other feature of language demands that the translator be not only accurate but highly sensitive to the rhetorical nuances of the language'.

§ V. Samples of translation. Blitzkrieg блискавична війна. Comprehensive Programme of Disarmament n Всеосяжна програма роззброєння. International Nuclear Information System n міжнародна система ядерної інформації. National Guard n Національна гвардія. abet resistance v підтримувати руху опору (vi). abrogated a treaty v розірвав договір (vi). 1. abrogating a convention n розірвання договору. 2. abrogating a convention v расторгающий договір (vi). absolute rule n самовладдя. absolute war n рішучі бойові дії. accelerate upon an agreement v прискорювати досягнення угоди (vi). 1. adhering to treaty provisions n дотримання положень договору. 2. adhering to treaty provisions v соблюдающий становища договору (vi) adjustment of disputes n врегулювання розбіжностей. administration of peace-keeping operations n здійснення операцій із підтримці світу. bar the way to war v перепиняти шлях до війни (vi). basic war plan n основний стратегічний план. beam the opposition v придушувати опір (vi). brush blaze n локальна війна. brush fire war n місцева війна. call to the colors v оголошувати мобілізацію (vi). carried the day v здобув перемогу (vi). challenge to the world community n виклик міжнародного співтовариства. change in a policy n зміна політики. chemical warfare agreement n угоду про заборону хімічної зброї. circumvention of an agreement n обхід угоди. claims to world superiority n претензії на світове панування. comparison of military expenditures in accordance with international standards n зіставлення військових бюджетів по міжнародних стандартів. compensation allowance n грошова компенсація. competitive co-existence n співіснування за умов суперництва. completion of talks n завершення переговорів. compliance with commitments n дотримання зобов’язань. conduct an arms race v вести гонку озброєнь (vi). conduct diplomacy v проводити дипломатію (vi). conduct of disarmament negotiations n ведення переговорів із роззброєння. consolidation of peace n зміцнення світу. construction of all-embracing system of international secutity n створення всеосяжної системи міжнародної безпеки. consultative board n консультативну гендерну раду. contending nation n воюющее держава. contest the air v оспорювати панування повітря (vi). control agency n орган управління. convene a meeting v скликати нараду (vi). convene the UN Security Council v скликати Рада безпеки ООН (vi). conventional armament n звичайні озброєння. desperate situation n безвихідне становище. detentist n прибічник розрядки міжнародної напруженості. deterioration of resistance n ослаблення опору. deterioration of resistance n ослаблення опору. diminished international tension n спад міжнародної безпеки. diplomatic attack n дипломатична атака. diplomatic co-operation n дипломатичне співробітництво. diplomatic decision n дипломатичне рішення. disarmament issue n проблема роззброєння. disarmament negotiation n переговори щодо роззброєнні. disaster control n заходи з усунення наслідків нападу. 1. drafting an agreement n складання тексту угоди. 2. drafting an agreement v що становить текст угоди (vi). ease international tension v пом’якшувати міжнародну обстановку (vi). entered into alliance v вступив у союз (vi). established an organization v створив організацію (vi). financial service n служба фінансового забезпечення. graves registration service n похоронна служба. 1. heading off the arms race n перешкоджання гонці озброєнь. 2. heading off the arms race v воспрепятствовавший гонці озброєнь (vi). implement a goal v здійснювати мета (vi). in-depth assessment n глибока оцінка. isolationist posture n ізоляціоністська політика. large-scale production n великомасштабне виробництво. 1. leading to positive solutions n приведення до позитивних результатів. 2. leading to positive solutions v що призводить до позитивних результатів legal branch n юридична служба. ligitimate rights n законні права. maintain mastery v утримувати панування повітря (vi). maintain neutrality v дотримуватися нейтралітету (vi). maintain stability v підтримувати стабільність (vi). maintained a статус-кво v зберіг статус-кво (vi). making demands v выдвигающий вимоги (vi). 1. managing non-compliance n врегулювання питання про недотриманні. 2. managing non-compliance v урегулировавший питання недотриманні mandatory embargo n обов’язкове ембарго. meet an aggression v відбивати напад агресора (vi). meet the demand v відповідати вимозі (vi). militarese n військовий мову. military high court n верховний військовий суд. mounting of international tension n посилення міжнародної напруженості. moved a resolution v запропонував резолюцію (vi). mutual co-operation n взаємне співробітництво. mutual commitment n взаємне зобов’язання. mutual deterrence n взаємне стримування шляхом залякування. mutually acceptable agreement n взаємоприйнятне рішення. mutually advantageous treaty n взаємовигідний договір. mutually beneficial reductions of armaments n взаємовигідні скорочення озброєнь. mutually beneficial treaty n взаємовигідний договір. negotiated treaty text n узгоджений договору. negotiating atmosphere n атмосфера переговорів. negotiating forum n форум на переговори. negotiating parties n договірні боку. negotiating priority n пріоритетний питання переговорів. negotiating process n процес переговорів. negotiating stalemate n глухий кут переговорів. negotiations behind the scene n закулісні переговори. new mentality n нова психологія. no-cities strategy n стратегія запобігання поразки у містах. noble goal n шляхетна мета. non-aligned status n статус неприсоединившегося держави. non-alignment with military blocs n неприєднання до військових блокам. non-armament agreements n домовленості про невооружении. non-governmental expert n неурядовий експерт. non-interference in internal affairs n невтручання у внутрішні справи. non-strategic a нестратегический. nuclear co-operation agreement n угоду про співробітництво у ядерній області. observed a status v дотримався статус (vi). observer status n статус оглядача. 1. observing a truce n дотримання умов перемир’я. 2. observing a truce v соблюдающий умови перемир’я (vi). 1. observing to treaty provisions n дотримання положень договору. 2. observing to treaty provisions v соблюдающий становища договору (vi). occurrence of nuclear war n виникнення ядерної війни. offensive-arms agreement n угоду про наступальних озброєннях. offer co-operation v пропонувати співробітництво (vi). 1. overcoming the deadlock n вихід із безвиході. 2. overcoming the deadlock v який із глухого кута (vi). overcontrol n надмірна централізація управління. overhead expenses n накладні витрати. prolongation of a treaty n продовження договору. 1. putting a stop to the arms race n зупинка гонки озброєння. 2. putting a stop to the arms race v заразний гонку (vi). putting in jeopardy v яка під загрозу (vi). random surprise verification n вибіркова раптова перевірка. range of measures n комплекс заходів. 1. re-establishing equilibrium n відновлення рівноваги. 2. re-establishing equilibrium v який відновлює рівновагу (vi). reduction of military budgets n скорочення військових бюджетів. 1. rendering assistance n надання сприяння. 2. rendering assistance v який надає сприяння (vi). severe contraction n різке скорочення. system of declaration n система оголошень. tables of information and characteristics n інформаційно- характеристичні таблиці. 1. tabling for consideration n уявлення в руки. 2. tabling for consideration v що становить в руки (vt). tactical program n програма оперативно-тактичної підготовки. take a series of unilateral steps v робити серію односторонніх кроків (vi). take-it-or-leave-it approach n безкомпромісний підхід. 1. taking the strain off n розрядка напруженості. 2. taking the strain off v разряжающий напруженість (vi). tangible progress n суттєвий прогрес. throwdown v 1) скидати (vi); 2) скидати (vt). top level forum n високий форум. top priority n вищий пріоритет. top secret adv таємно. top-priority a першочерговою. topical problem n актуальна проблема. topicality of proposals n актуальність пропозицій. treaty assessment n оцінка дії договору. treaty of unlimited duration n безстроковий договір. turn down a resolution v відхиляти резолюцію (vi). turn out data v видавати дані (vi). turned down a resolution v відхилив резолюцію (vi). ultimate truth n істина остання інстанція. ulterior motive n прихований мотив. ultimate reply n рішучий відповідь. unacceptable conditions n неприйнятні умови. unacceptable damage n неприйнятний збитки. unacceptable terms n неприйнятні умови. unattainable goal n нездійсненна мета. unavailing efforts n марні зусилля. unbridled escalation of the arms race n неконтрольована гонка озброєнь. unchangeable статус-кво n незмінний статус — кво. uncontrollable situation n некерована ситуація. under the agreement adv за згодою. under the conditions of glasnost adv за умов гласності. under the conditions of openness adv за умов гласності. under the conditions of peace adv за умов світу. under the eagis of the United Nations adv під егідою ООН. under the treaty adv згідно з договором. undermine an agreement v підривати угоду (vi). undermine stability v підривати стабільність (vi). 1. undermining a meeting підрив наради. 2. undermining a meeting v що підриває нараду (vi). unit veto n загальне вето. universal annihilation n загальне знищення. unofficial meeting n неофіційна зустріч. unproductive conference n безрезультатний нараду. unswerving supporter n твердий прибічник. urgent demand n нагальна вимога. urgent problem n невідкладна проблема. vote for a resolution v голосувати резолюцію (vi). voted-down draft n відхилений проект. 1. waging operations n проведення бойових дій в. 2. waging operations v проводить бойові дії (vi). 1. wandering away n ухиляння. 2. wandering away v дивергентний (vi). wanton aggression n нічим не викликана агресія. wanton interference n нічим не викликане втручання. war by proxy n війна чужими руками. war diplomacy n дипломатія війни. war of annihilation n війна про знищення. war of attrition n війна на виснаження. war of liberation n визвольна війна. war preparedness n готовність до війни. war propaganda n пропаганда війни. war-time diplomacy n дипломатія війни. widening of international ties n розширення міжнародних зв’язків. won with wide recognition v набув широкого визнання (vi). working language n робочий язык.

Conclusion

In the given Qualification Paper we have investigated various translation methods of political literature from English into Russian. We tried to give a detailed study of the features of translation of Political literature for it is one of the types of translation that has not been studied in details in our country up to this time.

Moreover, we’ve studied the translation methods of Political literature and political terms at a deeper level, the types and ways of translation of Political literature; we’ve also considered the function of political literature in everyday life of the humanity.

The aim of this work was to introduce the translation approach to Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for those willing to keep up their educational and scientific carrier in the science of translation, it was purposed to broaden their view on translation studies and peculiar features while translating Political literature.

In this work we’ve completed the following tasks:

— we've reviewed all the sources of Political literature

— methods of translation of Political literature have been carefully studied

— the grammatical, lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties of translation of political literature were discussed

The originality of this work is in its creative approach to the study of methods of translation, besides, it contains a detailed review of ways and methods of translation.

The given Qualification paper contains introduction, two chapters, and samples of translations of political set expressions, conclusion and bibliography list.

Summary

Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and would like to see others to treat them like professionals rather than as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators need to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as well as others that they are in control of what they do; that they do not just translate well because they have 'flair' for translation, but rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to understand various aspects of their work.

Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as a subject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing number of universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines in order to develop and formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.

In this research work we have completed the following tasks:

— we have reviewed all the sources of Political literature

— we revealed the methods and ways of translation of Political literature

— and we have also investigated grammatical, lexical, phraseological and stylistic difficulties of translation of Political literature.

In this Qualification paper we have reviewed almost all the grammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties of translation of Political Literature.

While reviewing the grammatical changes we considered the following transformations: substitution, omission, transposition and supplementation.

Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items), ex:

I like Politics. And I do. or

Will the United Stated start the war against Iraq? — No one knows.

The words like do, one, the same are usually used in substitution.

Omission, as you know is when an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. The example is:

In the World War II the Soviet Union lost over 70 millions of life. And the United States less than 10.

A hearer will easily infer what happened to the United States during the war.

Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

A big wave of actions by all sections of workers — skilled and unskilled, men and women, manual and non-manual — for higher wages and equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in shaping the environment at work is rising.

Зараз наростає величезна хвиля страйків трудящих всіх категорій — кваліфікованих і кваліфікованих, чоловіків і жінок, працівників фізичного і розумової праці - за підвищення зарплати, за рівну оплату жіночого праці, до скорочення робочого дня, за поліпшення умов труда.

Supplementation happens to be very frequent when translating texts on International politics because we do not always have corresponding words for some English or American notions like:

During the World War II one of the basic changes in the US military bases was the construction of emergency hangars in case of sudden attack.

Однією з важливих змін у військових базах США під час Другої Світовий Війни була розробка конструкції ангарів для термінового вильоту в разі раптової атаки.

There is no corresponding word in Russian military system for emergency hangar therefore we had to make use of supplementation.

Thus, we have come to conclusion that the above mentioned changes are necessary while processing a translation of Political literature from English into Russian.

While discussing the lexical problems of translation we considered lexical-semantic features of both languages and investigated such cases as difference in word volume, word combinability, generally accepted tradition of word usage, we have also considered contextual meaning of words in the process of translation. In addition we investigated the emotional coloring that plays an important role while processing a translation of Political Literature. We have studied the translation of international words and unexpected usage of word combinability that makes the translation task harder.

A very interesting contextual meaning of exploitation was in the following example:

Britain’s worldwide exploitation was shaken to the roots by Colonial Liberation Movements.

The contextual meaning of the word originated metonymically — any colonial system lives on exploitation, which is the basis of colonial power. The corresponding Russian експлуатація can not be used in this contextual meaning, the contextual surroundings of exploitation (worldwide, shaken to the roots) also prevents it. The only possible variant of translation is by means of metonymic transposition — substitution:

Колоніальна могутність Англії було підірвано (вражене повністю) національно-визвольними рухами переважають у всіх колониях.

The use of words of abstract meaning strongly differs in various languages. Therefore arises the necessity of concrete definition in translating.

The Saigon regime used every form of pressure and violence to compel a reluctant electorate to go to the polls.

Сайгонский режим вдавався до всіх видів тиску і насильства, щоб змусити впертих виборців брати участь у выборах.

In the study of stylistic transformation during translation we found, that the repetition is widely used with stylistic purposes in newspaper publicity. In these cases the translator is compelled to apply stylistic changes, make substitution or omission.

A policy of see no stagnation, hear no stagnation, speak no stagnation has had too long a run for our money.

Занадто довго ми оплачуємо політику повної ігнорації і замовчування застою з нашого экономике.

The triple repetition of no stagnation has been omitted in translation, though is partially compensated by the use of synonymic pair at a word (stagnation), but neutralization is evident in translation. The neutralization happened when translating the phraseological unit to have (too long) a run for our money.

Still, studying the difficulties of translation of Political literature we have come to conclusion that the most difficulty to a translator represent set expressions and phraseological units that are widely used in American and English politics. In most cases we do not have corresponding notions in Russian or have some words that do not sufficiently cover the whole meaning of the word in question: for example:

The Cold War last for more than forty years.

Холодна війна тривала більше сорока лет.

In this case we used word for word (verbatim) translation for we do not have any words that would convey the sense the Americans put in this expression.

Therefore a translator, majoring in the translation of Politics should have a good command not only of English itself, but should know the principles of International politics and other Political sciences.

To wind up this discourse, we would like to remind you, that while our country is rapidly integrating into the International community, the need of highly experienced translators of Political literature will be evident to make the International Events easily accessible to general public.

Bibliography

(information sources)

1. Fathy A. Osman. Senior interpreter/translator, IMF, Washington, DC

2. In other words — a course book on translation. Mona Baker, London and

New York, 1992.

3. The Craft of Translation, John Biguenet & Rainer Schulte, The

University of Chicago Press.

4. Translation features, Basnett-McGuire, New York Publishing house 1980.

5. A course book on Military Translation, Ministry of Defense of the

USSR, Moscow 1962.

6. Translation difficulties, T.R. Levitskaya & A.M. Fitterman,

«International Relations» Publishing house, Moscow 1976.

7. Difficulties of translation from English into Russian, Zrajevskaya

L.M. & Belyaeva, Moscow Publishing House, 1972.

8. Translation and linguistics, Schweitzer A.D.

9. English Grammar, L.S. Barhudarov & D.A. Schteling, Moscow 1965. 10. Exercise book on translation of humanitarian texts, Malchevskaya,

Saint Petersburg 1980. 11. America and Russian and the Cold War, Walter LaFeber, 6th Edition,

Cornell University 1991. 12. Comparative Politics, Washington State University, 1996. 13. International Conflict Cooperation and Management, Slippery Rock

University, Pennsylvania, 2000. 14. internet 15. internet 16. internet 17. internet

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